Schizophrenia is a mental disorder in which people interpret reality differently. Schizophrenia affects around 24 million people worldwide. Onset of schizophrenia is most likely to happen during late adolescence and the twenties and tends to emerge earlier in males than in females. Resarch has not found one single cause of schizophrenia, but researchers believe that the interaction between genes and environmental factors can cause it1. Schizophrenia is also associated with significant health, social and economic burdens. Individuals with schizophrenia have an increased risk of premature morality compared to the general population. Co-occuring conditions such as heart disease, liver disease, and diabetes contribute to the premature mortality rate. Approximently half of the individuals with schizophrenia have co-occuring mental and/or behavioral health disorders as well. Financial costs for individuals with schizophrenia is also higher due to costs of health care, social service needs, loss of productivity and other factors2.
Symptoms of schizophrenia fall under the categories of psychotic, negative, and cognitive. Psychotic symptoms include hallucinations, delusions, thought disorder, and movement disorder. Negative symptoms include losing interest and enjoyment in activities, withdrawal from social life, and difficulty showing emotion. Cognitive symptoms include concentration issues, problems paying attention, and problems remembering information that the person has just learned3.
Journal of Managed Care + Specialty Pharmacy
- Projecting the Long-Term Economic Impact of Once-Monthly Paliperidone Palmitate Versus Oral Atypical Antipsychotics in Medicaid Patients With Schizophrenia. El Khoury A C, Pilon D, Morrison L, et al. Journal of Managed Care + Specialty Pharmacy. 2020 Feb;26(2):176-185.
- Projecting the Economic Outcomes of Switching Patients With Schizophrenia From Oral Atypical Antipsychotics to Once-Monthly, Once-Every-3-Months, and Once-Every-6-Months Paliperidone Palmitate. Morrison L, Lin D, Benson C, et al. Journal of Managed Care + Specialty Pharmacy. 2023 Feb;29(2):161-171.
- Real-World Calibration and Transportability of the Disease Recovery Evaluation and Modification (DREaM) Randomized Clinical Trial in Adult Medicaid Beneficiaries With Recent-Onset Schizophrenia. Basu A, Patel C, Fu A Z, et al. Journal of Managed Care + Specialty Pharmacy. 2023 Mar;29(3):293-302.
- Schizophrenia Population Health Management: Perspectives of and Lessons Learned From Population Health Decision Makers Roach M, Lin D, Graf M, et al. Journal of Managed Care + Specialty Pharmacy. 2021 Oct;27(10-a Suppl):S1-S13.
- Place of Care and Costs Associated With Acute Episodes and Remission in Schizophrenia McIntyre R S, Higa S, Doan Q V, et al. Journal of Managed Care + Specialty Pharmacy. 2023 May;29(5):499-508.
- Schizophrenia: One Name, Many Different Manifestations. Faden J, Citrome L. Med Clin North Am. 2023, Jan. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2022.05.005.
- Schizophrenia. Jauhar S, Johnstone M, McKenna P J. Lancet. 2022, Jan. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(21)01730-X.
- Approach to Schizophrenia. Harris A. Intern Med J. 2023, Apr. doi: 10.1111/imj.16068.
- The Economic Burden of Schizophrenia in the United States. Kadakia A, Catillon M, Fan Q, et al. J Clin Psychiatry. 2022, Oct. doi: 10.4088/JCP.22m14458.
- Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia: Newly Emerging Measurements, Pathways, and Treatments. Marder S R, Umbricht D. Schizophr Res. 2023, Aug. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2023.07.010.
Increased Metabolic Potential, Efficacy, and Safety of Emerging Treatments in Schizophrenia. Meyer J M, Correll C U. CNS Drugs. 2023, Jul. doi: 10.1007/s40263-023-01022-7.
- Recent Findings on Subjective Well-Being and Physical, Psychiatric, and Social Comorbidities in Individuals With Schizophrenia: A Literature Review. He Y, Tanaka A, Kishi T, et al. Neuropsychopharmacol Rep. 2022, Dec. doi: 10.1002/npr2.12286.
A Narrative Review of Treatment Interventions To Improve Cognitive Performance in Schizophrenia, With an Emphasis on At-Risk and Early Course Stages. Mayeli A, Clancy K J, Sonnenschein S, et al. Psychiatry Res. 2022, Nov. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2022.114926.
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1. World Health Organization. (2022). Schizophrenia. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/schizophrenia
2. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (n.d.). Schizophrenia. Retrieved from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/statistics/schizophrenia
3. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (n.d.). Schizophrenia. Retrieved from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/schizophrenia